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Forging ratio is the result of the rolling operations of the initial slug, in one main direction, called the drawing direction, this allows to increase the length whilst decreasing its cross section.
Forging ratio is calculated by the ratio: initial cross section / final cross section.
Forging ratio of a rough structure of a heat treatment has several effects :
- improvement of the density of the slug by confining the cavities, leading to a better impact strength
- significant increase of the resistance to necking
- refinement of the broken structure, grain size
- creation of an 'anisotropy', inducing the improvement of certain strength properties in a longitudinal direction.
The term fiber or grain flow is used in analogy to materials that actually contain fibers such as wood or certain composites. In the case of metals, it refers to the global orientation of the metal structure obtained by the flowing direction of the stock during its deformation.